Top 10 largest Celtic cities, and more fascinating Celtic demographic facts

These stats were written back in 2007, the rest of the page is more recent.

1 Glasgow 650,000

2 Dublin 500,000

3 Edinburgh 448,000

4 Cardiff 316,800

5 Vigo 293,000 Why they are called Celta Vigo

6 Gijon 275,000

7 Belfast 270,000

8 Nantes 270,000

9 A Coruna 245,000

10 Swansea 225,500

11 Oviedo 213,000

12 Rennes 210,000

13 Aberdeen 210,000

The definition is, a city in one of the traditional Celtic countries. They are Scotland, Wales, Ireland, the Manx, Cornwall, Brittany, and Vigo's Galicia.

Then Spain's Cantabria and Asturians also claim a bit of Celticness sometimes, I mean their Iron Age heritage was quite much the same.

Then some may say, well why not include England, well it is not really counted as a Celtic land, even though in many ways it is, in some ways it could be said to have more of a Celtic history than a Anglo Saxon one, even not including immigration from Celtic lands. Also France as well, it prides in Gaul, as much as Wales Scotland or Ireland pride in their ancient histories, but I will keep it as this statement for now.

Then what about cities in the New World, well I am not counting them for now. Certainly there were times when there were more Irish born people in some US cities in the 19th Century, than almost every city in Ireland, but that is not the case anymore. More on facts like that in the rest of this page.

So here is a nice table, listing the 10 largest Celtic cities in the world. As ever the big problem, is what do you define as Celt. Well with out getting too bogged down with that debate, the term has 2 main uses. One for a group of Iron Age people in North Western Europe of various tribes, which at times includes, Britain, Ireland and Gaul, but also at times the Belgae, and South West France, and parts, some would say even all of Spain, Western Germany and Central Europe.  (That is a rough boundary)

The second is a term that became common in the 19th Century. It could be basically defined as those people of the British Isles that were not England itself. That may sound a bit negative, but that it is not the point, as it is the fact that those  territories, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall the Manx, and the 2 entities of Ireland, do have a different historical formation than the nation of England, as proven by certain language histories, and etc.

Some see both those terms as contraversial, but I feel that is a debate about nomenclature, that in itself is more contraversial and political, than the use of these terms, as all you need to do is put in disclaimers about the veritableness of the terms, and that solves any fear of anarchronisms, and stoking division. The 2 terms are of use, and would need to be invented if they did not exist, and there is undoubtadly a great link between the cultures of those 2 definitions, and a ancient cultural and political link. Though with the added caveat, that the term is a artificial term to a extent, like all ethnicities and identities, and that the boundaries of who is a Celt are so blurred that you could include modern England as a Celtic nation, and France and more, so so many caveats. Though I like the term, as it has major truths, and uses as a term historically and even up to the political situations of the present day.

So here is a list of Celtic lands. I.E lands that most people in the country are called Celtic by their leaders in terms of culture. These stats were written in 2007, I have given the 2020 stats in brackets, if no brackets, then things have not changed much.

Scotland 5 million people, (5.5 Million)

Republic of Ireland 4.3 million (4.9 million)

Northern Ireland 1.8 million (1.9 million)

Britany 3.9million including a million or so in the place Nantes is in, called Loire Atlantique, really part of Brittany, (4.4 million) also including a territory called Morhiban, also not in the Brittany department, which was once of the old Brittany.

Wales 2.9 million (3.2 million)

Asturias 1million a bit Celtic culture

Cantabria 0.5million, a bit Celtic culture,

Galicia 2.7million, very much consider themselves a Celtic land at times.

Manx 0.84million

Cornwall 0.55million

West Devon 0.06million, Somerset, and Dorset also have claims to be Celt but I bet less so, and  0.55million Cumbria, and all Devon. Cumbria's sheep markets counting system has numbers using old Brythonic words, with numbers which are very similar to Welsh.  These areas in western England outside Cornwall with this semi Celtic heritage would be reaching a combined population not much smaller than Wales.

Liverpool to be honest has a huge Irish, Welsh and Scottish heritage, and even it's accent as likely formed to a very strong extent by the 19th Century Irish influx. Also Corby a town in the English midlands a strong Scottish heritage,

Then what about England itself, or Gaul, well they consider themselves English and French so I will not count them in, but they are Celtic nations in some ways, and for that matter so are more lands in Europe, as it such a undefinable term.

Then there is a recently revealed to be Celtic one. indeed, the Faeroes, Iceland, and Medieval Greenland and Vinland. More of that I say below.

Few people would see these Viking lands as Celtic territories, but perversely they have Celtic heritage. It seems the Vikings settlers, to Iceland, took along a bunch of Celts, or maybe some of the Irish monks there already added to their population. Whatever the case, as of this, they are more Celtic DNA, than the Shetland and Orkney Islands are of Viking or Norse DNA. (Shetland and Orkney have much more Celtic DNA than a majority, and the Viking DNA is less than a third, much less) I and must confirm, anybody who lives in a Celtic land can consider themselves a Celt and is one, wherever their ancestors came from, as of them being in a Celtic land, as historically most people who live in such lands are even in some cases, just to a small extent, but many, to a large extent, descendants of many peoples who came to these lands over many centuries of time.

The Faeroes even more so has a Celtic element to the population again, some say it is half Viking half Celt. Many say it is as the Vikings took Celtic spouses there, though you never know, maybe there were some Picts there already, or Irish monks (They were famed for long voyages for reasons of faith), and maybe some Vikings were Celticised, in places like the Norse colonies in Dublin and Mann, and then arrived there.

Medieval Greenland also had a Celtic element of their DNA (Similar to the strength of what exists in the Faeroes), before the plague and climate change and new economic factors, and expansion of Inuit tribes saw their society vanish. Thus so being, any settlers in Vinland their brief colony in North America, likely would have been so as well, but they were hardly in that Medieval kind of Newfoundland area for long. Vice versa, amazingly some DNA tests have found small amounts of Inuit DNA in Iceland's population from likely the Viking excursions to North America. Though there were times when Inuit (turns out it is not spelt Innuit, though there is a mountain by that name )canoes would be paddled ashore to Iceland, but these were very rare very unusual visits, that would not lead to such exchange.

Then in the New World, I list these remarkably Celtic enclaves. as we all know, Canada, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand have big amounts of emmigration from Britain with these 4 places below, being locations where so many arrived, the local population has remained strongly of that group ever since.

Cape Breton island in Nova Scotia, 0.146million, very many Scottish

Prince Edward Island 0.144. Million, Very many Scottish

Chubut valley, Argentina 0.004million  Many Welsh

Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland Canada, 0.23million,  Many Irish

Also there are some Irish communities on Carribean islands, like Bermuda, which can go right back to the 17th Century, and number in the thousands, and still keep some pride in their Irish ancestry.

Canada has some of the more Scottish communities, with Nova Scotia, still having some Gaelic spoken there.

It has to be said, Celtic emmigrants I mean emigrants have integrated into these societies, so for instance, they are in most cases far more connected to their American or Australian identities, than long ago ones. Though still here are some fascinating stats.

In terms of the diaspora for the USA, these are stats I found,
Scotland, Scottish Americans
20–25 million in the USA likely have some Scottish ancestry.
Up to 8.3% of the U.S. population
Scotch-Irish Americans
27–30 million have some Scotch Irish ancestry though some crossover with the above stat, and this can be larger and smaller in differing cases. Like some people have more Scottish ancestors than others.
Up to 10% of the U.S. population​

The 1790 the USA estimate was 8 percent of the population were Scots Irish, 4 percent Scottish, out of a population of 3.9 million,

In 2010, as of greater emigration from across the world, and people merging into America's well vaunted and celebrated melting pot, it was now listed on the census as 1.7 Percent Scottish, 1.5 Percent Scotch Irish, in terms of identities people claim, out of 309 million people.

So, as stated, that does not mean that 10 percent figure do not realise they have Scottish heritage, it is just many more identify with their American identity, and of course that 10 percent stat includes people who have ancestry from many lands, in Americas melting pot.

OK, but also then some areas have more people claiming Scottish heritage than others. Maine in it's census has these claims for the returns, 5.1 Scottish and 1.6% Scotch Irish, the highest total for a state, with some counties reaching over 8 percent combined. Though this all may well be as Maine has seen far less migration than other states, either internal, and external since 1789.

Then a lot of people talk about Appalachian Scottish migration.

Well North and South Carolina and Tennesse have the highest Scotch Irish total at just over 2 percent of the state's reportees each.

When you look at county maps, there are some in the west of North Carolina reaching double digits as of that famed Appalchian emigration of the 18th Century from Scots and Scots Irish from Ulster. Indeed Mitchell County in West North Carolina has over 14 percent claiming these identities when put together. In fact it is a rare county I have seen where other than "American" the merged Scottish identities is the most recorded identity. I think in some ways this is more remarkable than what you see for Ireland below, as large sections of this population's Scottish or Scotch Irish ancestors arrived, or were born, before the USA was even a country, and they are still claming a Scottish heritage so long after, despite Scottish emmigration to these areas being very small for the century at least.

Ireland's emigration to the USA, was later, than Scotland, in terms of it's big numbers, and so later in integrating as they have of course done into the American mainstream identity. But there are some parts of the USA with huge Irish census figures. Massachusetts has over a fifth claiming Irish heritage, despite the mass of the Irish immigration being over a century ago, and some places within it even more. There are entire towns where half the population state they are Irish on the census, such as parts of Plymouth County.

Now historically Ireland sent even more migrants to the USA than Scotland, so it has even higher figures.

Wales sent many migrants to the USA, and Welsh communities did exist, but as the numbers were smaller, and the Union with England was older, they seem to have integrated more fastly with the American mainstream society, nothing wrong with that they just did. Indeed less than a percent of Americans claim Welsh heritage even though the figure of who has such ancestry is likely a number of times greater than that.

Though there are some places where Welsh identity in the North East is high, Pennsylvania has a area a county with five percent claiming their heritage. Many time's the level for most counties even in the state and the North East. There was also a area of land called the Welsh tract in that state, but this was in South East Pennsylvania, in the 17th Century and is not where the high Welsh ethnicity figures are. That scheme did not get as far as the planners wanted. Surprsingly Wales has a higher one even than this, there is a Welsh heritage Mormon community in Idaho, Mandan County, with 20 percent claiming the ethnicity. This is many times more than the rest of the state. This is as Mormonism was popular among many Welsh migrants as a kind of side issue with the more booming Methodist revivals in Wales of the eras. 

Well I am sure Canada, has areas even more Irish and even more Scottish, the areas where early emigrants arrived, I am not sure about New Zealand and Australia, as their immigration was in a different manner, to the ship loads of whole actual communities landing on the harbour. Though each has very high percentages of Scottish and Irish heritage in some places.

More on Aus and NZ and Canada below.

Then again, there are other specially Celtic parts of England. Like Oswestry was taken by Welsh princes in thrusts in the 12th Century which took back what is North East Wales today. The rest of North Wales stayed Welsh, but Oswestry was retaken back by the English in 1157. There was also a tiny bit of Berwick style Welsh taking of a tiny slip of land, north of Oswestry, Whittington Castle, the last time the Welsh had it, 1276. That castle may have been a major site for a British kingdom Pengwern, half a millennia earlier. 

The more amazing one is what was once part of the Welsh kingdom of Ergyng, a area of West and South Herefordshire called Archenfield today. Which was taken under some Saxon overlordship in the Dark Ages. It was regarded by many as part of Wales well into the Middle Ages, even under semi English and semi Welsh control. It was a kind of debatable land, but many areas round here were. Even after it was defined as part of Herefordshire, it still in the mid 18th Century had mostly Welsh speaking communities and even in the 19th, the language survived. It seems the language finally died out there in the early 20th century.

The Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire, stayed Welsh it seems to the 8th Century, well after Bristol.

I have my picture at the bottom of this page of Offa's Dyke.

Back further north, Shropshire may have had Welsh speaking communities in some parts of it closer to the later period of pre 1499, so much later than other parts of the English Midlands. Though more so it's area around Oswestry had Welsh speaking communities till the 19th Century, on the Welsh border, partly as of being so close to Wales. Indeed it if you look it is kind of hemmed in on 3 sides by Welsh territory, though you can not call it enclave today as the border is open, but possibly in terms of language a few centuries ago it was.

Astonishingly the Welsh language, except in parts of North East Wales, north of Oswestry, was very strong west of Offas Dyke, and less so east of it, and stayed like this for centuries after the Normans even to the 19th century. Also, some have even found strong connections in other ways between the people of Wales and their Welsh counties, to Herefordshire's Archenfield, in DNA and such, but not to such an extent to them for the more Saxonised east Herefordshire. Indicating how the language survived there till the very early 20th Century after dwindling the previous one. At times in the Norman era they referred to the Welsh who were of course in big numbers in Hereford, (The split in Herefordshire between west and east actually was near Hereford) as the main county town, as the hill people. You can say Hereford, Chester and Shrewsbury had strong elements of Welsh to their histories, even when they were very much so in England, at least from the Medieval era, as of their historic trade with Welsh communities over the border. It must be noted that Offa's Dyke with Wat's runs from north to south, near the modern Welsh English border, but disappears in Archenfield. This is likely not as of the rivers being fine boundaries, but as the fact the Welsh and English speaking population of West Herefordshire, were within England's orbit, this complicated the creation of a boundary dyke there.  Possibly the rivers on either side of the Archenfield were a boundary plus the fact there was a Welsh speaking population, within Mercia's orbit complicated that. Whatever the case, possibly the geography, the more hilly land of the west, and the rivers helped keep Welsh as a distinct culture here, causing no man made boundary to be feasible, and helped Offa, or local deciders, decide on no dyke being needed, or possible here. Instead the Monnow marked the western boundary of this Welsh speaking area of Herefordshire with Wales proper itself, and the Wye as it runs through Hereford the boundary at some points between more English Herefordshire and Welsh. This Archenfield thus had mixed ties, culture with Wales, political in many ways, with Wales, more so with England, and some extent to itself quite automomously for a long time. 
So there are 3 slips of land in England, that could be called once Welsh speaking in modern history, i.e the 19th Century. The large one, Archenfield, which is half of Herefordshire, and still affects local names and culture, including Hay on Wye. Indeed as I say, you could say it is the size of Flintshire or many Welsh counties in area.
That tiny slip of a few parishes west of Oswestry, which actually includes Old Oswestry Hillfort. Though it has to be said that hillfort must have been in Saxon territory as it was part of Offa's Dyke, so surely was part of their defences. Though seeing it is part of what we could term Wales over the border, (I have just invented this term) you could say that it is a tiny bit Welsh territory.
Then last of all a tinier slip of land in south west Shropshire, again west of Offas Dyke, though put in England as of the act of union in the fifteen thirties under Henry the eighth.
The first of all these lands is the size of a small Welsh county, the last 2, just small parishes. I am not sure how late that tiny area in South Shropshire stayed Welsh speaking, but Welsh bards of the sixteenth century with very Welsh names were still being born there, so likely it was a while. Though it is likely the area was English speaking by the mid 18th Century, as Wales by then had some portions of land in it, that combined would be the size of 2 Monmouthshire's spread about the principality, that were majority English speaking by then, which included a portion of Welsh lands bordering here. Though likely the people had just learned English rather than be replaced. Though as I say it did survive there to the Elizabethan era. There may be some doubt about that as the same map indicates Monmouthshire, which was very Welsh speaking in the Elizabethan era, to have become massively English speaking by the mid 18th Century, but other sources prove the Welsh language was strong over notable parts of Monmouthshire, even in the mid 19th Century. It seems Welsh may have had a similar history in Monmouthshire to the Archenfield, weaker at the start of the 19th century than Archenfield, but though having declined, stronger especially in the west, at the end of it, and even so at it's trace levels in the east and majority of the county as well.

For that South West corner of Shropshire, of half a parish, by Clun, I note Welsh services, unlike the rest of Wales, were ended in the 1730s, in a neighbouring village, Beguildy, in Wales. So perhaps it was finishing around then, like with some other eastern parts of Radnorshire, where Welsh, was being replaced by English there. So likely it was at least bilingual, at the middle to end of the 17th Century, though Radnorshire's east had started seeing Anglicisation begining even before then, unlike most of the rest of Wales, a process that in this pocket of Wales was gathering pace at least a century, even at this mid 18th Century point, or so, before of the rest of Wales.  It seems some parts of mid and south border Wales, like in Radnorshire, tiny slips of it, may have started moving towards bilingualism, or even English monoglotness, from Welsh monoglotness, even from the Elizabethan era, though most waited a while for that, as shown by how late parts even had bilingualism, on the border. Unusual that when Archefield styed Welsh for so long, I says I think that.

So Offas Dyke, seems to have made the language border where it was for centuries, Further north, it seems more to be about Wat's Dyke, which for example runs east of Holywell, but there, places like Flint east of it, were bilingual in the 19th Century. Maybe that is to do with the expansion of Gwynedd after the start of the 2nd millenium. You do see Bangor on Dee, is east of these lines and was a rare English majority, not even bilingual location in North Wales, so these dykes did mark boundaries. There is a path that heads from mid Wales, to Prestatyn, along the Clwydian Hills, way west of there, called the Offa's Dyke path, that leads to Chepstow, and the area in the north between Wat's and the path were disputed between Welsh and Saxon, then English leaders, but it seems, to have had little effect on the big block language boundary As the late 19th and then 20th Century wore on, many many Welsh speakers adopted English, infact the vast majority of the population, only halted in terms of a trend in the later part of the era.

I must say, when I drive over the hills and high lanes of West Herefordshire, Archenfield, you do sense it is a different geography and higher, than eastern areas of the county. Much more lanes, winding over numerous hills, which could explain how it stayed British, or Welsh. It does explain why there are some thoughts that Owain Glyndwr spent some of his last days here, while on the run from the English crown.


For that matter when driving in the area of South West Shropshire, near Herefordshire, with a slip of land with Welsh village names, and a degree of Welsh surnames actually, around Clun's western villages, it has a lot of Welsh upland style, 1 lane roads, as well. Though Welsh did not survive there as long as Archenfield, it did for a long time.

Of course England's border town of Berwick was a major Scottish borough till it's brutal

sacking and capture by the King of England in twelve ninety six, and was on and off part of either kingdom, till it was last in Scottish hands properly in 1482, when a English siege took it. Now of course it has a identity unlike any other town in England, which has a kind of dual Scottish English identity essentially that can be called Berwicker. A nice sign of the peaceful proud friendship Scotland and England have had between eachother, a very valuable thing, for centuries now, very much so really, replacing the horrible times of conflict, with peaceful times of good relationships ever more.

Last of all Elmet, with West and South Yorkshire does seem to be a few percent of more Celtic than the rest of that county, which is the most Viking in England. So it seems the old idea that Cumbric and Brythonic influences extended along the spine of the Pennines to North Derbyshire, with the language dying out there likely before the Norman conquest, the further north, the later, may be true. There is some opinion it lasted after the conquest in parts of Cumbria, but it is hard to know for sure. It is felt Cumbric lasted in Scotland longer than in England. Indeed it is likely Celtic identities  and people would have kept that link longer in some upland areas of the spine of Northern England, for longer, affecting demography of the area even relatively recently.

Cornish seems to have existed in small numbers in parts of West Devon to the 12th or even 13th, some even say the 14th century. 


The Channel Islands, seems to be similar to England in terms of how Celtic it is. This is that, it has 2 strands before this century, of population influence, which were the initial Neolithic, Beaker people, and Celtic, people population, that could be termed surely as Celtic Channel Islander, and that then in the Dark Ages, this population was affected by Viking, but not Saxon influences. Then after the Kingdom of England had the territory, with it's orbit and then after the UK had it, the population was influenced by English and British as a whole populations. So I would say it is like England, but more Viking in terms of DNA, as in about 2 thirds Celtic, and 1 third, Saxon and Viking, except the Channel Islanders, is more Viking than England. So England is about 2 thirds English Celtic, with a bit of that being recent immigration from other Celtic lands, and Channel Islands is 2 thirds Channel Islander Celtic. Normandy must have it's own Gaulish Celtic influences like that with some Viking, and later French, while Brittany is more Brittany Celtic, and later British Isles Celts, and stuff. Like all these, it just depends on where you arbitrarily draw the boundaries, as like it is more, Cumbria Celtic, or Surrey Celtic, or Jersey Celtic, and within them, they were all mixing with border groups and other groups over time. You can in a sense no more say the Channel Islands were Celtic, than you can say the French were, so they have just as much a claim as they does.  Though it does seem, some Britons from Britain also occupied the isle in the Dark Ages, possibly they were more like a elite, who had less affect on the population than the Vikings, but some little affect surely on pre Norse, language and DNA. But it had been speaking a local version of Vulgar Latin before then, maybe or something like that, maybe influenced by Celtic, like Gaul, and South East England. I am not sure, but it must have been a version of a Celtic language or Latin, and then this or a Latin implant from Normandy developed from before the 11th Century on the isle. . I think maybe it was a local vulgar Latin that became the Jerrais etc. Now like Manx, and Cornish  this language has lessened, but it is not in itself a Celtic language, more a Latin one, that has been replaced almost wholly by English. 

The Channel Islands, spoke a kind of Romance Latin language till about 2 centuries ago, and overtime that language declined, it was influenced by French, and also to a small degree English, Norse and Breton, and surely historically the Channel Islands Celts.


P.S I am not anti immigration, I am just stating what it was like, there was no policy that made it like this, it was just geography and history that made this the story, and I like to see where we come from as a world. The modern economy is another change in history and naturally sees more internal and external emigration and immigration, and the incomers, will be as much integrally part of future DNA, as the more long ago, arrivals, so I say, you can be pro or anti migration, but I have benefitted from migration, but of course if some people say otherwise, for themselves, they are perfectly entitled to believe so.  

​It is stated 20 to 24 percent of the European settlers to New Zealand from 1840 to 1940 were Scottish, so a pretty big impact there. Dunedin seems to be a major Scottish population centre. A similar fraction claim Irish ancestry. The Welsh population though of many, was not as huge.

Australia with over 20 million people, has around a million each claiming Irish and Scottish heritage, but under half that as a very much that identity. Cornwall and Wales had 770,000 with some of those roots, and way under half that in terms of that being a major part of their ancestry.  The Manx, 40,000 for the first stat, and again way less after that.
As of this there are some places in Australia, which have over 12 percent of the population claiming Scottish heritage on the census. Western Victoria and Adelaide seem to have been places in the 19th Century which were over half Scottish. In a sense the more amazing one is the US ones though which have stood the test of time, you wonder if Australian identity will merge these feelings, in a way that has occured in most of the USA. Not that I am saying any of those things are right or wrong.

In Canada 14 percent of people claim to be Scottish, while 41 percent of Prince Edward island claim Scottish heritage, compared with Ireland's fifteen as a whole in Canada, which is likely a small amount under reported in each case. Only 3 percent of Quebec claim Scottish heritage, as of course it is such a French province. Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are all over one fifth Irish in the census stats. For that matter, New Brunswick, Alberta, and British Columbia and Yukon claim to be over one fifth Scottish as well. Newfoundland is only 7 percent, so quite low, compared to the Irish. It is felt really half of Prince Edward island is Scottish in ancestry, so easily the most Scottish place outside Scotland, and with the Irish, and a percent or so Welsh, it is easily the most Celtic outside Europe. 32 Percent of Nova Scotia's million people claims Scottish heritage the highest for a Canadian province other Prince Edward Island, with 2 percent Welsh. Even in 1931 Cape Breton island, a region of Nova Scotia, which like Prince Edward has over 100,000 people today was  majority Gaelic speaking, though only a small number speak it as their main language now. 40 percent of Cape Breton's most urban area claim Scottish heritage so again it must be as Scottish as Prince Edward Island, and as Celtic, as over a fifth claim to be Irish, and again a notable 1 percent Welsh. I would guess it is even more Scottish than Prince Edward Island, and even more Celtic. Both it can happily be said, also have other groups from Native American to English to Polish in each and loads.

The Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland has strong Irish heritage, it is not as Irish as Cape Breton is Scottish, but there is a Irish loop area, famed for it's Celticness..

Also Cumbria was part of Scotland till the late 11th Century and Northumberland, and Cumbria were held by a Scottish king in the mid 12th century, during a English civil war.


Also the Falkland Islands have a very strong Celtic, indeed Scottish component.  

Also the isle of Rockall in the Mid Atlantic is said to be either a Scottish or Irish territory, most people say Scottish. Whatever, it is Celtic.I have lots of T Shirts of Celtic countries below for sale via Zazzle. A miss spelling of Monmouthshire is Monmouthsire. A miss spelling of Scotland is Scottland. 

Birthplaces of many modern Welsh leaders, including First ministers, and Welsh secretary,, and some ruling outside of Wales

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Offa's Dyke at Clun parish in Shropshire

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