I have been to British Camp Hillfort T-Shirt
I have been to British Camp Hillfort T-Shirt
by cooldudeproducts
Assassin's Creed Brotherhood
 

A webpage on

Ingleborough Camp Hillfort,

and

Burrough Hill Hillfort

& a few other forts

Plus below, English revolts under the Tudors

Ingleborough Hill, so Hillfort Public.jp
Ingleborough Camp.jpg

Ingleborough Camp Hillfort and Burrough Hill fort, and below that a picture each of 3 other hillforts in England. Plus below the revolts bit a mini gazetteer on those sites with a pic each, Castle Hill Hillfort, Huddersfield, Worlebury Camp Hillfort, Somerset, and Warton Crag Hillfort, Lancashire, The top bit on Ingleborough is before I went, then I have a small article on the time I went there. The same goes for my lower down bit about Warton Crag

Ingleborough Camp

Ingleborough is a mighty hill, one of the 3 peaks of Yorkshire. 

The hill also has this incredible fact that it has an Iron Age hillfort. Ingleborough hillfort.  The fact it is a hill that is 723 metres high, means that on my stats, it is the highest known hillfort in the British Isles. A remarkable fact, when you consider Scotland and Wales have much higher peaks. Of course though it is as those higher peaks, are not normally suitable for hillforts, either as defensive sites, or as places to live. 

So here is my bullet point list on Ingleborough the Iron Age hillfort. 

* It has a prominence above the last of 427 metres. 

* The fort of course is named as of the suffix being a Saxon term for a fort, and the first term, may mean English or beacon. 


* The plateau of a summit is where the fort is, and there is a rampart surrounding the area. 

* This page is a unusual fusion page, of 2 hillforts, and English revolts under the Tudors, as I realised after writing the article on revolts under the Tudors, that this story could tie with these. As I realised this supposed to be a site on hillforts, but just think that was the last time, other the Civil War., that these regions, the Eats of England, and Northern England had big local reasons for conflicts, and hillforts were also involved in local style revolt wars. I mean like the English civil war was a pan English and also a pan Wars of the Isles war, but these hillforts were surely involved in local, East of England, or North England political realities, surely remote from much of the rest of Britain and Ireland. 

* Above is a picture of Ingleborough, the hill. 

* Inside the fort are some remains of iron age huts, as hut circles.  

* The fort covers an area of 6 hectares. 

* Some put the fort as late Bronze Age, or early Iron Age,  but more put it in with the tradition it was  Brigantes fort, used by this huge tribal confederation in the 1st Century AD. the one that covered large parts of Northern England. Strangely I have read both these claims. Even more surprisingly it is not known for sure, which I find very frustrating for such a great site. Then again maybe this enigma, is a part of a attraction. Though when people talk about specific Celtic chiefs and Roman generals, with just speculation, then I fear if that is in the same school of speculation, that claims as if it were undeniable fact that a few in number hillforts, were all the one where Caradoc fought the Romans, in the exact battle mentioned in Roman sources. Though then again, the fellows who say that are right in a way as it muts have been somewhere, and these forts were forts, so well done them for bringing their stories to life. 

* This website indicates that it may have had a pre Brigantes tradition. 

http://www.ingleborougharchaeologygroup.org.uk/Ingpdfs/Cairns%20Essay.pdf

* As of this I go for that it was all those things unless proven otherwise. 

* For certain, if it was a Brigantes stronghold it was amazing. If it was not, and was a earlier site, it was still surely remembered in their time, and was still amazing. 

* It seems the fort was used all year round.  

* The fort casts a prominent line for miles around, and is a site that cam be seen at points from the coast. Not that well at times, but just about. 

* It is on the far western edge of Yorkshire, I was surprised it was not in Lancashire. 

* So either it is like the folktale tradition, that it was a Brigantes fort, defending off the brutal Romans, the people of this land, who despite the Saxon and Viking raids, are still have their heirs here now. 

* Or, it was a more ceremonial site of ancienter time. 

* Surely it is not older than that. 

* But imagine this great hill, known as a ceremonial site from far away, it would make sense, I have my own theory about it. 

* Pendle hill is 21 miles to the south

It is the 105th highest peak in England, and the 575th highest in the British Isles. Most of this article was written in Sep 2020/. 

Operation Eeenlebooraghh, as I say in a mock Saxon or Viking accent from the Dark Ages, ( I can say that as I have a tiny bit of Viking in me)

So after finding out in 2019 or 2020, that Ingleborough is Britain's highest hillfort, I may have had a inkling on the back of my mind to go there. Once I had been up Craig Rhiwarth I was certain I wanted to go, and it was the plan at the back of my mind in 2021, I would go up. I almost left it too late but there was a window of good weather in late September 2021. We drove up the M6 and arrived saw Warton Crag. And from it or just below, I am sure we saw the cloud in the distance cross and leave Ingleborough. 
So next day after staying in Burton in Kendal we drive there through countryside that did resemble Last of the Summer Wine at times. I would never have guessed such a westerly area is part of Yorkshire, but looking at it, it does look like my imagination of Yorkshire, and if anything the mo8untains more like Cumbria. 
Anyhoo, we had practiced on Moel Siobd a difficult climb the week before, and  stopped in the car park in Ingleton by the library. I went up with supplies of sweets, cola, and more, a torch and such. We had a great picture laden route webpage I got off the internet and a OS map. We knew this would be more a Snowden than a Marilyn. Anyway, up the lovely looking Yorkshirevillage of Ingleton, a bit of a small town really we trek onto the track Fell Lane, or something and walk along. Wondering if the near White scars is Ingleborough I wonder if this shall be too easy, then the cloud lifts and we see behind is the mighty mountain of Ingleborough, So we trek further past the farm, past more and more walkers, and then up the steep mountain and it's plateau. 
On top we see Pen Y Ghent, a great Welsh name, and Helvelyn (I love seeing them like shadow peak through the other more colour laden fells), it too, Whernside, Pendle Hill, it took time to realise what was what but my OS map, and the compass plaque in the middle helped. We saw Warton crag wehere we had been the day before, perfect for a beacon. Plus Morecambe Bay, plus lots of walkers, the fascinating geology of the distance the viaduct and all from up here, a great pantheon. So unmistably if you know what you are looking for it is visible for far and wide. We then saw the "walls", and I just see them as what I see at other hillforts, so I wont judge but it looks like hillfort walls to me, just lower. Same to see the horrible destruction by cairns and such. 

Interesting to see Little Ingleborough and Simon Fell, below, I can understand why he fell, there are a lot of trip hazards there. 
I am sure we saw Barrow far away. and it was the big cube buildings by the coast that made up realise what coast we were seeing, Heysham nuclear power station. 

Got to admit most of the people up there looked fitter than us (fell runners and such), but that made our achievement at a slow pace feel all the better. 
We then trekked down, so easier than Moel Siobod but harder than Moel Famau, and harder as of longer drives. Great stuff. I used my walking stick. I would say I have no idea if it was hillfort or ritual site, but  hillfort what a site it could be, talk about a great defence, 

Now back to the mostly 2020 written article, 

* A Tower was built right below the summit in the early 19th Century to honour Queen Victoria, but it became a ruins quite quickly some says as of locals actions towards it, though some call this a legend. 

Wainwright called Ingleborough the undisputed lord of limestone country, while Alfred Brown called it Yorkshire's Magic Mountain. 

* The great Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had family in this neck of the woods, his mother lived at Masongill in the area, and so he actually mentions the mountain in Uncle Jeremy's Cottage, and The Surgeon of Gaster Fell. I should add he seemed to like the area, as, as well as his Scottish history and Irish heritage, he mentioned the area in his books, indeed the name Sherlock, was possibly inspired by a fellow from this part of the world, though I am unsure if that is certain. 

* Apparently from the top you can see Moel Siobod far away in North Wales, on a very clear day as a small speck I am sure. Lost in the haze. On a a very clear day you can apparently see the Isle of Man, and Scafell Pike. As I say on my fun facts page. 
* It is not spelt Inglebourough or Ingleburgh, or Inglburgh, or Ingleburrough, or Engleborugh, or Angleborough, or Ingleford, I am unsure if Ingleton Hillfort is ever used, or Ingleborough hillfort. 

It is OK to spell it Ingleborough Camp Hillfort though. 

 

Burrough Hill Hillfort.


My next fort on this page, is Burrough Hill, Hillfort. 

This hillfort, is a fortification not that far from Leicester, in the East Midlands. 

* Now this fort has been dated, it is now where near as high as the above, but it is just as special. 

* This site hits out at 210 metres above sea level, pretty high for the land in these parts.

* It has 5 hectares in area. 

* Today it has over 3 metre high banks. 

* Many artefacts have been found here been found here from 100 BC and 50 AD. 

* I like this site, as it is in the area of  tribe known as the Corieltauvi, that covered much of the East Midlands. I myself have a coin from this tribe. 


* Over 400 storage pits have been found at the site.

* It is a univallate hillfort, just 1 line of ramparts. 

* This key site was superseded by Ratae Corieltauvorum, which became a kind of oppida, that then became a capital fo a civitas. It later became Leicester. 

* The coin I have made by the tribe from here, smaller than my little finger’s nail, but you can see its magnificence, with the boar on one side, and the magnificent horse on the other with its muscular front legs lined out, in their majesty. With the then Celtic times pattern of pelletal sun ring, and pellet in a annulet below. Showing the animalistic energy of these creatures. The boar itself, likely living in forests, sniffing about under trees and leaves. A good source of pork, for good hunters, in this more forested time. 

* John Leland noticed the Burrough Hill fort had White Sunday fairs and such on the site, in the 16th century, it may be too much to claim this was from Iron Age traditions. 

* The site is not far from Melton Mowbray the town of the great pork pie. 

* It is felt there was a bit of settlement in the Roman era. 

* The fort like Maiden Castle had become part of a farm by the Medieval era.

* Below is a picture of the Iron Age coin, that I own, that was from the tribe, that likely held this general area. So possibly a coin like that could have passed through this fort's economy bags. 

My Iron Age coin.jpg

Now the bit about those revolts I was mentioning in the title pages, along with the hillforts

England as the largest of the countries of the British Isles, has had plenty of history within it's borders. As I say in a few pages here, I consider myself someone who can claim Celtic heritage, which gives me a affinity with the Iron Age Celts. It has to be said though that despite the Anglo Saxon invasions, England has as much right to claim to be a Celtic nation as anywhere else in some senses. So here is a page on a exciting period of English history.

Though The Tudors are famed in England's story for solidifying much of the basis of the basis of the English stats, and for being a bridge between the medieval and modern world. ,I have always been intrigued by the revolts in England during that time, Of course one of the mythologies about the Tudors is that they were a Welsh dynasty, and to a extant it was a truth, though in truth you have to admit they were far more a English dynasty. Anyhow here it is .

Kett's Rebellion was a revolt in July 1549 instigated by Robert Kett of Wymondham. Kett himself had been a tanner who had used enclosure on the common landKett. When rebels came to rip down his fences he was convinced by their arguments & soon became the leader of the rebellion. It was aimed at bringing attention to the economic problems faced by agricultural workers in East Anglia. In the spirit of the Levellers of the next century, the leaders demanded the abolition of enclosures, the end of private ownership of land, & the dismissal of counsellors. To a lesser degree, the rebellion also had religious leanings, with the rebellion campaigning for further Protestant reforms & the right to choose their own priests. The rebels themselves did not believe that they were rebels as they didn't think that they had done any real harm & they thought that they had the support of the Duke of Somerset. He had made it seem to them that he was going to aid them in the enclosure crisis & establish enclosure commissions. But this was never to be;somerset was not going to risk upsetting nobles who had most likely been using enclosure just to help some peasants. The insurgents amounted to maybe 15,000 men, but after some initial excitement they were defeated in August by an army under the command of the Earl of Warwick--the rebellion was started in the area of Wymondham in Norfolk & came to an end in Dussindale one of the long dales that led from Mousehold Heath at the time. The actual site has never been proven. The most popular is that the Dale began in the vicinity of Plumstead Road East allotments that swept into the Valley Drive into the present remnant of Mousehold, into the Long Valley & out into what is now Gertrude Road & the allotments. In Victorian times this area was known as `Ketts Meadow`. The other Dussindale is the name given to a recent housing development in nearby Thorpe St Andrew, which appears to have more to do with the Civil War judging by the various road names.

Lady Jane Grey, Wyatt's Rebellion (1554) is a popular rising named for Thomas Wyatt the younger (son of Sir Thomas Wyatt). After Mary I, "Bloody Mary" ascended the English Throne, she intended to bring the Kingdom of England back into the Roman Catholic Church & restrict the rights of Protestants in the kingdom. Wyatt, among others, greatly opposed re-entry into the Catholic fold & rose up against the Queen. Jane's claim to the throne came through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, the daughter of Mary Tudor (herself a daughter of King Henry VII of England) & of her second husband, Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The will of Edward VI excluded Lady Frances (who lived until 1559), so the succession passed over her & directly to her daughter Jane. According to male primogeniture, the Suffolks - Brandons & later Greys - comprised the junior branch of the heirs of Henry VII. The 1543 Act of Succession restored both Mary & Elizabeth to the line of succession, even though the law continued to regard both of them as legal bastards. Furthermore, this Act authorised Henry VIII to alter the succession by his will. His last will re-enforced the succession of his three surviving children, then declared that, should none of his three children leave heirs, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, Mary. Henry's will excluded the descendants of his elder sister Margaret Tudor, whose claims had primacy over those of the Suffolks, owing in part to Henry's desire to keep the English throne out of the hands of the Scots monarchs, & in part to a previous Act of Parliament of 1431 barring foreign-born persons, including royalty, from inheriting property in England. Several Protestant nobles had become wealthy when Henry VIII closed the Catholic monasteries & divided the Church's assets among his supporters. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, figured prominently among the Protestant nobility, & in the last years of Edward's reign had acted as Edward's principal advisor & chief minister. Northumberland, when it became clear that Edward VI would not survive long, led the faction that feared accession by Mary Tudor. This fear stemmed from the knowledge that Mary would certainly revoke the religious changes made during Edward's reign, & that she might reclaim from the nobility all former church & monastic properties in order to restore them to the Roman Catholic Church. Many Englishmen also expressed concern that Mary favoured for herself a Spanish marriage which might bring in Spanish nobles to rule England in place of Northumberland & his colleagues. Northumberland arranged for his son Guildford Dudley to marry the Protestant (and anti-Catholic) Jane, hoping through him to gain control over his new daughter-in-law & the reins of England. When informed by her parents of her betrothal, Jane refused to obey: she regarded Guildford as ugly & stupid. Historians do not know what made this seemingly quiet & obedient girl turn against precedent to refuse her parents' marriage arrangements. Jane's refusal notwithstanding, her parents forced her into submission.

The question of the succession had arisen as a result of the religious unrest that had occurred during the reign (1509 - 1547) of Henry VIII. When Henry's Protestant son & successor Edward VI lay dying (1553) at the age of 15, his Roman Catholic half-sister Mary held the position of Heir Presumptive to the throne. However, Edward VI named the (Protestant) heirs of his father's sister Mary Tudor (not his own half-sister Mary) as his successors in a will composed on his deathbed, perhaps under the persuasion of Northumberland. He knew that this effectively left the throne to his cousin Jane Grey, who (like him) staunchly supported Protestantism & had a very high level of education. At the time of Edward's death, without Edward's will (which had dubious legal standing, since it ran contrary to the Act of Succession of 1543), the crown would have passed, under the terms of both the Act of Succession of 1543 & of Henry VIII's will, to Mary & her male (not female) heirs. Should Mary die without male issue, the crown would pass to Elizabeth & her male heirs. & should Elizabeth die without male issue, the crown would pass not to Frances Brandon but rather to any male children she might have produced by that time. In the absence of male children born to Frances, the crown would pass to any male children Jane might have. Jane thus did not feature in the line of succession prior to the last draft of Edward's will of June 1553. Only in the last draft did Edward finally include Jane Grey as his heir presumptive, knowing the line of succession included no Protestant-born male children. This may have contravened customary testatory law because Edward, then just 15 years old, had not legally reached legal testatory age of 21. But more importantly, many contemporary legal theorists believed the monarch could not contravene an Act of Parliament, even in matters of the succession; Jane's claim to the throne therefore remained obviously weak.

Painting sometimes claimed to depict Lady Jane Grey; by an unknown 16th century artistEdward VI died on July 6, 1553. Northumberland had Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen of England on July 10, 1553, just four days later — once she had taken up a secure residence in the Tower of London (English monarchs customarily resided in the Tower from the time of accession until their coronation). According to some fictional accounts, Northumberland tricked Jane into putting on the crown; however, she refused to name her husband as king by letters patent & deferred to Parliament. She offered to make him a duke instead.

Northumberland faced a number of key tasks in order to consolidate his power. Most importantly, he had to isolate & , ideally, capture Mary in order to prevent her from gathering support around her. Mary, however, advised of his intentions, took flight, sequestering herself in Framlingham Castle in Suffolk.
Mary I proved to have more popular support than Jane, largely because the English people regarded her as the rightful heiress, but perhaps partly because of the continuing sympathy for the memory of her mother, Catherine of Aragon (Henry VIII had had his own marriage with Catherine annulled). At Framlingham Castle Mary amassed a force of 20,000 men, which marched to London & deposed Jane. There then initially seemed some likelihood that Mary, who had now taken the throne, would spare Jane's life. Queen Mary sent John de Feckenham to Lady Jane in an attempt to convert her to Catholicism.

Wyatt expected that others would join him in revolt — plans were made for a country wide rebellion. However, his co-conspirators were unable to rebel & unable to tell Wyatt, so his forces rose anyway. The rebellion seized much of Kent, & Wyatt led his forces in a march on London. Significantly Mary was able to rally London to her cause by appearing at the City gates & announcing herself as the legitimate queen. Wyatt's rebellion was defeated a matter of weeks later. What it demonstrated though was that legitimacy in England during the 16th century trumped religious affiliation: many Protestants had supported Mary during Wyatt's rebellion & the earlier period of uncertainty surrounding her accession, plenty of Catholics ended up supporting her sister & had supported her father & brother. The failure of Wyatt & other confessional rebellions has often been seen by historians as one of the reasons why Tudor monarchs were able to seesaw so effectively between the religious faiths during the 16th century. Personally the rebellion was a disaster for Wyatt; he was executed & Queen Mary took away Wyatt's title & lands including the family home, Allington Castle.

Ridolfi Plot The Ridolfi plot was a Roman Catholic plot of 1570 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England & replace her with Mary I of Scotland. The conspirators were led by Roberto di Ridolfi, who, posing as an international banker, was able to travel between Brussels, Rome & Madrid without attracting too much suspicion. Ridolfi had discussed his plans with the Duke of Alba in the Netherlands. Charles Baillie, a Scot favourable to Mary's party, was arrested at Dover carrying compromising letters, & revealed the existence of the plot under torture. The Duke of Norfolk was discovered to have been funding Mary's party in Scotland & was arrested on September 7, 1571. Norfolk was put on trial for treason early in 1572 & executed in June.

The Rising of the North or Northern Rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising against Elizabeth I of England in 1569 by Catholics of Northern England. Its objective was the deposition of Elizabeth & coronation of Mary I of Scotland as Queen of England. The rebellion was led by two members of the great Northern nobility: Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland & Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland. They were instigated in part by Leonard Dacre, who was playing a double game. As heir-male of George Dacre, 5th Baron Dacre of Gillesland, he hoped to betray the conspirators & obtain, as a reward, the lands held by his nieces, the coheirs of Lord Dacre. The rebel Earls occupied Durham & had Mass sung in the cathedral there by the old rites. They marched south to Bramham Moor, while Elizabeth struggled to raise forces sufficient to confront them. However, hearing of a large force being raised by the Earl of Essex, the rebels abandoned plans to besiege York, & captured Barnard Castle instead. They proceeded to Clifford Moor, but found little popular support. Essex marched out from York on December 13, 1569 with 7,000 men to their 4,600, soon followed by 12,000 under Lord Clinton. The rebel Earls retreated northward before him & finally dispersed their forces, fleeing into Scotland. The treachery of Dacre was discoved, & he gave battle with 3,000 Cumbrians against a detachment of the royal army under Lord Hunsdon. Dacre was vanquished, but escaped to die in exile in Flanders. As a result, Raby Castle was lost by the Neville family. The Earl of Westmorland was attainted, but escaped to Flanders & died impoverished in Spain. The Earl of Northumberland fled into Scotland, was imprisoned by the Regent Moray, & turned over to Elizabeth in 1572, being summarily beheaded in York. Various lesser personages & Catholic priests also fled into exile or were executed.

Pope Pius V aided the Catholic Rebellion by excommunicating Elizabeth & declaring her deposed in a Papal Bull. The Bull of Deposition, Regnans in Excelsis, was only issued in 1570, arriving after the Rebellion had been put down. After the Bull of Deposition was issued, however, Elizabeth chose not to continue her policy of religious toleration. She instead began the persecution of her religious enemies, leading to various conspiracies to remove her from the Throne.

Neville's wife Jane Howard had more to do with raising the troops than he did. She hoped to arrange the marriage of her brother, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, to Mary Queen of Scots & put them both on England's throne. Despite being the first to urge the rebels to rise up, she expected Elizabeth to pardon her when they failed — instead, Neville fled to the continent, she lived the rest of her life under house arrest & Thomas was imprisoned but then forgiven, only to fall in the Ridolfi Plot.
The Prayer Book Rebellion or Western Rebellion was a popular rising occurred in the southwest of England in 1549.

In the 1540s the government of Edward VI introduced a range of legislative measures as an extension of the Protestant Reformation in England & Wales, the primary aim being to remove certain practices from the church which were perceived as being too Catholic. In 1549 the Book of Common Prayer in English replaced the four old liturgical books in Latin. The change was widely unpopular amongst religious conservatives — particularly in areas of traditionally Catholic religious loyalty, for example, in Devon & Cornwall.

Some commentators believe that the roots of the rebellion can be traced back to the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 & the subsequent destruction of monasteries from 1536 through to 1545 which brought an end to the formal scholarship that had sustained the Cornish & Devonian cultural identities. The smashing & looting of colleges like Glasney & Crantock played a significant part in fermenting opposition to future cultural reforms. Apart from being missed as centres of indigenous culture, many would have seen these institutions as being a bridge to the Celtic past, a link to a time before the perceived imperial overlords achieved ascendancy, back even to the Christianised paganism of their forefathers. Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great seal, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 September 1599, & reached London four days later. The queen had expressly forbidden his return & was surprised when he presented himself in her bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palace, before she was properly wigged or gowned. On that day, the privy council met three times, & it seemed his disobedience might go unpunished, although the queen did confine him to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender".

Essex appeared before the full council on 29 September, when he was compelled to stand bareheaded before the table during a five hour interrogation; the council—his uncle Knollys included—took a quarter of an hour to compile a report, in which it was found that his truce with Tyrone was indefensible & his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty. He was committed to custody in his own York House on 1 October, & he chose to blame Cecil & Raleigh for the queen's hostility. Raleigh advised Cecil to see to it that he did not recover power, & Essex appeared to heed advice to retire from public life, although the population was thought to be with him.

During his confinement at York House, Essex probably communicated with King James VI of Scotland through Lord Mountjoy, although any plans he may have had at that time to ease the Scots king on to the English throne came to nothing. In October, Mountjoy was appointed to replace him in Ireland, but matters seemed to look up for the earl. In November, the queen was reported to have said that the truce with Tyrone was "so seasonably made . . . as great good . . . has grown by it". Others in the council were willing to justify Essex's return to Ireland, on the grounds of the urgent necessity of a briefing by the commander-in-chief.

 

 

Essex was found guilty & , on 25 February 1601, was beheaded on Tower Green. At Raleigh's own treason trial in 1603, it was alleged that Raleigh had said to a co-conspirator, "Do not, as my Lord Essex did, take heed of a preacher. By his persuasion he confessed, & made himself guilty." In the same trial, Raleigh also denied that he had stood at a window during the execution of Essex's sentence, disdainfully puffing out tobacco smoke in sight of the condemned man.

Some days before execution of sentence, Captain Thomas Lee was apprehended as he kept watch on the door to the queen's chambers. His plan had been to confine her until she signed a warrant for the release of Essex. Lee, who had served in Ireland with the earl & acted as go-between with the Ulster rebels, was tried & put to death the next day.

Perkin Warbeck In 1497, he landed in Cornwall, hoping to capitalise on the Cornish people's resentment in the aftermath of their uprising only three months earlier. As the freedom fighters had been defeated, however, Perkin found little support for a renewed rising against King Henry. Leaving Cornwall for London, he mounted a feeble military challenge to Henry but fled Henry's army a few days before battle would have been joined. He was captured & imprisoned in the Tower of London alongside the genuine claimant Edward, Earl of Warwick, with whom he tried to escape in 1499. Captured once again, he was hanged as a traitor at Tyburn.

Perkin reportedly resembled Edward IV in appearance, which has led to speculation that he might have been Edward's illegitimate son.

Of the course the most amazing revolt in English history was the Peasant's revolt of 1381, the Chartists of the 19th Century, The vast range of revolts associated to the English Civil war, most notably the Levellers, and the Monmouth Rebellion where hundreds were executed by the king's judges, after the revolt, in the sixteen eighties. Plus a number of riots in the 18th Century, and more so the 19th Century most significantly around the time of the 1831 reform act, including most turbulantly in Bristol.

A mini Gazetteer on Huddersfield Castle Hill Hillfort, Worlebury Camp Hillfort, and Warton Crag hillfort. Wincobank Camp and Roman Rig,

Castle Hill Hillfort, Huddersfield, 

Castle Hill, above Huddersfield in Yorkshire, is more famous, rightly so, for the towering Victorian Tower, in honour of Queen Victoria herself, a building towering at 32 metres high. The site stands over Huddersfield very well and the valley below. 

The fact the top is so flat, has lent itself to being a site for both Chartist and religious meetings in the 19th Century.

I can tell you though it also had a Iron Age history, with a  hillfort of 1 set of ramparts and ditches, developing from 555 BC, and it seems even seeing improvements around 43 BC likely in fear of Roman forces. A small castle was established after the Normans, with use in the 1140s, noted, but by the mid 14th Century it started on just being a abandoned site. It can even said to have had a village in the 12th Century, the classic deserted medieval village it seems. A fascinating site though. The tower puts it at 1000 feet or 305 metres. I have a picture of it on this page, Miss spellings of this site could include Castlehill and Castle Hill fort. or Cstle Hill Hillfort, or miss spellings of the town, Hudersfield, or Huddersfeld,  For that matter gazzeter gazzetteer, gazzetter, gazeter, and gazetter, are miss spellings of gazetteer. 


Worlebury Camp Hillfort, or Worlebury Hillfort

This is a site in the north of Somerset in South Western England, near Weston-Super-Mare, and the village of Worle. Apparently you could see all the way across the Severn from here to Wales. 

The Iron Age site has seen platforms and storage pits found across the fort by excavators. Some excitingly wonder if the platforms were places for archers and slingers to get rises to fire at enemies. It seems Worlebury Hill, has 10 hectares of it occupied by the hillfort itself. The area today is covered in woods. I have a picture of it on this page. 

Miss spellings of this site could include Worlbury Camp Hillfort, Worlbury Hillfort, Wrlebury Camp Hillfort, Worlesbury Camp, Worlesbury Hillfort, Worlesbury Camp Hill fort, Wurlebury Hillfort and WorleburyHillfort. and lastly Worlsburycamphillfort For that matter another miss spelling could Weston Super Mere, for the big town it is near. 


Warton Crag Hillfort

This site in North West Lancashire, has a 3.2 hectare hillfort atop it. It seems actually to have been a Late Bronze Age, multi ringed or multi ramparts site. Much of the defence used the facts it is a crag, a term for a rocky hill like this. You may say a crag fort is a good term in some ways, not really as hillfort is good enough, though crag fort is a idea, Others. The crags and slopes only defended the south, a trio of ramparts on the other side defended the rest. I have a picture of it on this page. 

So that article was written in 2020, mostly but this what I wrote in Sep 2021. 

For Warton Crag we realised we could do something the day before and I was surprised a crag hillfort I got a picture off, from the ancient times, was the nearest to Ingleborough and my hotel. So we go to Warton. What s suprise it was on the M6 so close in view to it. So reached a lovely little North Lancashire, Yorkshire Dales-esque town by the hill, and saw the church and streets we saw the town after the crag. So we stopped by a layby and walked up thought at 157 metres it would be easy but the crags and paths have to get past natural and man made rampart style ways, and so it was quite hard getting the right path at times. On top we saw a recreation of a Elizabethan Spanish armada beacon. Plus some plenty of vegetation. 

Miss spellings of this site could include Wharton Crag Hillfort, Wartoncrag Hillfort, and Wartun crag hillfort. Warton Hillfort surely is used at times, but Wharton Hillfort would be a miss spelling for sure So certainly Warton Crag Hillfort is the best terminology.

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Huddersfield Castle Hill, Hillfort in the 19th Century from afar, before the tower was built. 

With below that, Worlebury Camp Hillfort a 19th Century depiction. of this site in Somerset

And underneath a pit from that Somerset site. 

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A 18th Century drawing of Warton Crag in Northern England

Wincobank Camp and Roman Rig, Shefield.
Another hillfort I have visited is Wincobank Hillfort, or Wincobank Camp,  in Sheffield. So what happened was I was going to Sheffield to see sports, and took a wrong turn, so decided to get my sat nav correct. I ended up on top of a hill, and there was a road called Fort Hill Road. Then I wondered if there was a fort there, and saw a common called Wincobank Enclosure. I then remembered I had mentioned there is a hillfort in Sheffield where the army had anti aircraft guns called Wincobank Hillfort. I thought what luck and happenchance for a hillfort liker. I walked around the comoon thinking it was a ruined hillfort, and then saw a sign mentioning Roman Ridge, and realised that it may not be.

I luckily found a small number of seconds drive up the road, was the fabled incobank hillfort. So I stopped on the road nearby, on the hill, making sure my hand brake was OK, as Sheffield has a lot of hills.

So I notice that in this very much urbanised area, of plenty of houses and streets, on the summit of this houses covered hill, that overlooks Sheffield is a small area of a wood, and grass and some paths. You walk up the path and reach a hillfort. From it surrounded in trees, you reach a small hill fort, in a roughly a circle way. It is easilly indetifiable, with the ditches and low ramparts, and little else. On 2 sides are ridge like low gradients towards the streets of Sheffield that blanket this landscape. Then on one side is a steeper drop towards some near backs of houses,m and beyond them, a run of more streets, and below that, a scene of Sheffield's shops, and motorway, and stadiums. Then on the other side, forest, and the steep hill of more streets where I parked my car. But this hill does stand out well, which is why a anti aircraft position was posted on the edge of the fort. It is just 125 by 85 metres in area, the area enclosed is 1.1 hectares, and it is only 1 ring.  It is likely 550 BC and later. It hits 160 Metres high and overlooks the Don Valley.

The fort itself, is very much depleted but kept in OK condition though I did see the information sign damaged, but considering it is in the middle of a city it is doing fine. It was till the late 19th Century called the Roman Camp.

 
I would think from Tacitus description of a battle with Caratacus, this site with it's hills and river, and ability to scarper into hills behind, and it's great stategic importance it sounds more like the site where he lost his major battle, but the experts on the subject point out it was likely a Brigantes site so not that.  But I say the dyke as well, adds to my idea, of what that battle would have looked like. If it occured as Tacitisa sia,d or occured at all. So that is my silly theory there.

So of the ridge just below and by the fort, it was once thought to be Roman, but now is more seen as a pre Saxon barrier, of either the post Roman Celts, or Pre Roman Celts. Many wonder if the hillfort was used as part of the defence system as of certain indicators found by archaeologists. Was it used to defend the Britons Versus the Saxons. Or perhaps of the Brigantes to defend off the Romans. Some wonder if the fort was connected to the ridge, and was part of the defence. It is felt the ridge goes 16 miles to Mexborough. By the way Roman Ridge is rig, and was thought to be a Roman road, but was likely not, rig ia old word for road in these parts. It is also called the Roamn Rigg. So it is a very long dyke, which was not always the Celtic tactic.  
This is interesting as I remember seeing Michael Wood's history's of Dark Ages Britain, and one of the places he liked to say the climactic battle where the Kingdom of England in the Dark Ages, stopped at the Battle of Brunanburh, the Vikings alligned with the Picts and Strathclyde, in 937, devatsting the unified kingship of England, into parts, may have been here. Though the Wirral and other are other canididates. He aid this as it is such a historic route between portions of England. Whatever the case, it is what tells me of the strategic significance of this area. And why such a large dyke is here, I wonder is it to do with battles of the type Caradoc fought, against the Romans, summarised in telling by Tacitus or like the site of Camlan, though in a sense it may well have been such a site. In a sense it is frustrating to not know if it was  brigantes site defending off Roman advances or a Britons straegic force, but it is a indicator of how important this and transport routes were to these Celts. Parts of the Rig, are called the Barmkin, in Rotherham, and bits in Sheffield, had the name Kemp Ditch or Camp Ditch, or the Camp.  Some wonder if a small hill slope fort by the Roman Rigg in Rotherham is also a fort to help the site it is called Caesar's Camp, and is  Schole's Coppice.  It is not really regared as a hillfort as is only 1 acre. In 2021 many people are inclined to believe the rigg was part of a boundary with the enroaching Romans, with the much mentioned Brigantes. People say it was a Celtic boundary as it is only of use against forces from the south, so that is the way it must have worked.

Below is my picture of the ramparts of Winconbank Hillfort  overlooking Sheffield. Then under that, my picture of Roman Rig. This like many dykes runs along the top of the hill, or edge facing south, and of it, there is  a common behind it, and a road leading less than a minute or so, by car to the hillfort, and the rig, itself goes along many miles on each side. The road and hillfort go along the top of the hill where it would have overlooked the valleys bwlow, but now there are many estates and streets on this hill, other than this common, the rig, and further up the hill, the hillfort in a small wood. I wonder if that road was also part of the rig as in some say parts of the rig, or ridge have been replaced by roads and such. So all amazing stuff.  I better say Wincobank, hillfort is not spelt Winconbank Hillfort, it is Wincobank Hillfort.

One last thing I better say the dyke is also called, The dyke was called, Roman Ridge, Roman Rig, Scotland Balk, Barber Balk, Devil's Bank or Danes Bank. Some of those are names for the bits in Rotherham, but it is all the same thing according to most experts.

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